Low Birth Weight Newborn Care and Nursing Assessment
Low Birth Weight New Born care is very essential to preserve LBW baby
Low Birth Weight
Neonates Weighting less than 2500 gm irrespective of gestational age at birth are termed as Low Birth Weight .
These includes Preterm and Term babies
Causes of Preterm Birth
(a) Maternal factors
1 Medical disease of the mother during pregnancy
2 Complications of pregnancy e.g., placenta previa and antepartum hemorrhage.
3 Incompetence of cervix,
4 Maternal infections,
5 Previous premature delivery.
(b) Fetal factors
1 Multiple pregnancy.
2 Congenital malformation,
(c) Medical factors,
The delivery of the fetus may have to be induced before
full term on medical grounds under the following circumstances:
1. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in the mother,
2. Severe cardiac illness.
3. Hypertension, toxemia,
4. Fetal hypoxia and fetal distress,
5. Severe rhesus iso-immunization in the mother or hydrops fetalis,
6. Severe intrauterine growth retardation,
Improper diagnosis of maturity in elective deliveries
Major Problems in Low Birth Weight Babies
Hylane Membrane Desease,
Poor Weight Gain,
Low Birth Weiht Baby Care at Birth
High Risk Mothers should be early identified as early as possible during the course of pregnancy and plan for right place to treat mother and child as well health care felicities available i.e, Good quality Maternity and Neonatal Care felicities
Suitable place of delivery ‘in utero’ tranfer to a Place with optimum facilities if a LBW delivery is anticipated.
Prevention of hypothermia
Appropriate place of care
Birth weight>1800gms home care KMC – Kangoaroo Mother care
if the baby is Otherwise well Birth weight 1500-1800gms secondary level new Born unit
Birth weight<1500gms tertiary levels newborn care intensive car
External heat source (incubator radiant warmer)
Fluids and feeds:
IV fluids for very small babies and those who are
Sick Expressed breast milk with gavages or katori spoon
Direct breast feeding
Monitoring and early detection of complication
Weight and other clinical signs
Bio chemical monitoring
Principles of management for low birth weight neonates:
Although the preterm and SFD neonates have
Physiological differences, the principle of management are common.
Physical assessment of the new born.
Physical assessment (head to toe assessment):
The first assessment of newborn is done immediately after birth
second more detail examination is lobe within 1st hour or during admission
Third assessment before discharge .Brief assessment in each shift.
Nursing Assessment for Low Birth Weight babies
General Measurement :
I.Vital signs :
Respiration determine rate, rhythm.
Observe abdominal movement for one minute
R.R:40-60 breath\minute Cry R.R.
Tachypnea R.R>60\min, Apnea, 20 seconds or more.
Weighing the baby
Weight the baby before Transfer from the delivery Room,
Initiate breast feeding within 30 minutes of Birth,
What are the danger signs of New born?
Who are giving to Care of New Born Baby they
Need to aware that baby can get sick and die,
Difficulty in breathing,
Chest In drawing
Very Cold, Bluish Dislocation of Palms and Hands,
Convulsions and Fits,
Difficulty in Sucking or Breast feeding,
Redness of Umbilical Card or Pus Discharge, Swelling,
Redness of eyes or Pus,
Yellowish Skin, Rash on the Skin, Pustules,
A guide for Parents New born Care at Home,
You are ready to care of the new born at home and start life with your new baby,
These Baby Care tips help parents get confident about new born caring,
Handling of Newborn baby
Reduce Prevent cross infection by
Hand wash before Touching the baby with Soap and Water or Sanitizer,
Make sure Hand Wash that who are caring your baby,
Support baby’ s Neck and Head who your lifting the baby every Time,
Keep Baby Head Upright position when transferring to the credil or Crib,
Never shake your baby
Remember your baby is Not a Doll, Shacking of Baby can cause bleeding in Brain it lead to death,
List out common neonatal disorders ?
Haemolytic disorder of Newborn