Diabetes Mellitus Types Treatment Signs and Symptoms Diet Plan

Diabetes Mellitus
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Diabetes Mellitus Types Treatment Signs and Symptoms Diet Plan is a global disease.

it is rising on the waves of increasing moderate obesity and increasing age in the developing countries, Diabetes mellitus Disease is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by
chronic elevation of glucose levels in the blood.

Blood glucose level arises because the Pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin Hormone for its own needs, because of impaired insulin secretion into the bloodstream or impaired insulin action, or both.

Diabetes Mellitus affects over worldwide some 300 million people and is on the increase in disease incidence.

Chronic and long-term exposure to high-level blood glucose is a leading cause of Visual loss, renal failure,

a range of other types of tissue damage. Diabetes also predisposes to hypertension coronary arterial disease and lipid Disorders

History of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Diabetes Mellitus was a disease of the wealthy in the ancient period in India Known as Madhumeha (Sweet present in Urine) it was observed by aunts who were Attracted to the urine,
  2. The ancient Greek peoples coined the term “Diabetes Mellitus” meaning excessive Urine elimination with dehydration,
  3. Romans described that the urine contained sugar; “diabetes” was considered a kidney’s disease until the 18th century.

Raised glucose levels in the blood were recognized soon afterward. The modern era discovery of Oskar Minkowski that removal of the pancreas gland resulted in diabetes Mellitus,

followed by the discovery of insulin in the years 1921-22. Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by

increasing blood glucose levels can be resulting from defect or insufficient secretion of insulin or Insufficient action of Insulin Hormone

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Type I DM,
  2. Type II DM,
  3. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Definition of Type one Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

Type I Diabetes Mellitus is known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Juvenile diabetes mellitus. Pancreases fail to secretion or produce enough beta cells or insulin Hormone

Diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas and when the beta cells are destroyed  the pancreas gland  unable to produce insulin hormone at all

Definition of Type two Diabetes Mellitus

Type II Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes mellitus beta cells produce insufficient Insulin hormone

Definition of Gestational Diabetes Disease

Gestational Diabetes Disease was Less Insulin hormone Production during the pregnancy by the Antenatal Mother.

This type of diabetes recovers after pregnancy, but Mothers are at risk for developing type -II diabetes mellitus later in life Span.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Type I Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes Mellitus Gestational Diabetes


( increased appetite)


( increased appetite)


( increased appetite)


( increased thirsty)


( increased thirsty)


( increased thirsty)


(increased urination )


(increased urination


(increased urination

Candida infection, Candida infection, Candida infection,

Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Delay healing process, Blurred vision, Blurred vision,
 Delay wound healing process,  Delay wound healing process,  Delay wound healing process,
 Unexplained Weight loss, Lower  extremities paraesthesia, Lower  extremities paraesthesia,
 Fast  onset because of insulin production is Nil, Slow onset because of some insulin-producing,  Balanitis / vaginitis
Extremely fatigue, Extremely fatigue, Extremely fatigue,

There are different causes and etiology for diabetes  which are given below

Viral infection to Pancreas Gland

Autoimmune disorders,

Genetically disorders



Long time use of certain drugs i.e, steroid, thiazide diuretics, phonation,,

Severe or recurrent pancreatitis,

Lack of physical activity,

Pancreas carcinoma


Diagnosis Evaluation for Diabetes

FBS – Fasting Blood Sugar

PLBS – Postprandial glucose test

OGT – Oral glucose Tolerance test

RBS – Random blood Glucose

HbA1c Test

Thyroid profile

 DM Pathophysiology 


Treatment for Diabetes Disease:

Diabetic Medical Management

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize insulin activity

Blood glucose levels to reduce Normal Level

Reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications.

Components of management for diabetes:

  • Nutrition,
  • Exercise,
  • Monitoring,
  • Patient education,
  • Insulin therapy

Diabetic Pharmacological management

Rapid-acting Insulin

  1. Aspart
  2. Lispro
  3. Glucolize

Short-acting Insulin (Regular)


(Neutral protamine Hagadorn)

Long-acting Insulin’s


The oral medications are







Insulin secretagogues.




Prevention Measures for Diabetes Disease

Individualized hyperglycaemic control

  1. Healthy Diet and lifestyle
  2. Do Exercise regularly
  3. Medication

Treat associated conditions

  1. Dyslipidemia
  2. Hypertension
  3. Obesity
  4. Coronary heart
  5. Disease

Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Maintain healthy lifestyle habits

Eat a balanced and healthy diet

Controlling body weight Do more physical activity i.e. walking and playing games

Avoid Soft drinks and choose Coconut water, Green tea Less Consume Coffee or tea

Eat Sea products i.e Fish

Eat limited Red Meat

Eat Nuts Sports

Stop tobacco Consuming

Periodically Health Checkups and Monitor Blood Glucose levels

Take care of Eyes, feet,

Check for Numbness in foots

Check Blood pressure and vitals regularly

Diabetes Complications



DM Related Complications


Eye disease

Macular edema

Diabetic Retinopathy


Coronary Artery diseases

Peripheral arterial disease

Cerebrovascular disease

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy



Hearing loss

Cerebrovascular accident

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Erectile dysfunction in Males

Nursing Interventions for DM

Monitor blood sugar regularly

Control Blood Sugar

Measure body weight regularly

Observe signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia

  1. Level of Consciousness
  2. Cold and Moist skin
  3. Rapid pulse
  4. Anxiety
  5. Hunger
  6. Blurred vision

Coordination of blood sugar levels with insulin and anti hypoglycaemic agents

Asses for the signs and symptoms of infection

Increased temperature

Flushed appearance

Examine Wound discharges i.e color, odor,

Urine analysis for Cloudy urine appearance

Nursing Diagnosis for DM

Deficient knowledge related to diabetes mellitus self-care skills or information.

Anxiety-related loss of control, fear of inability to manage diabetes Misinformation-related diabetes,

fear of diabetes mellitus complications.

The risk for infection-related potential sensory loss in feet.

Imbalanced Nutrition Related to increasing in stress hormones

The risk for impaired skin integrity is related to immobility and lack of sensation.

Potential self-care deficit related to physical impairments or social factors.

Diabetes Mellitus Nursing care

Keep patient unit and bed sheet dry tidy wrinkle-free

Receive patient and Make patient Comfortable position

Check vitals periodically attach Multi Para Monitors for recording Pule Blood pressure  ECG…

Check for physician orders Check for prescribed treatment regimen for correcting hyperglycaemic as indicated.

Monitor laboratory values any abnormal inform to physician

Send for diagnostic evaluations as prescribed i.e Laboratory tests, Radiological investigations

Maintain asepsis nursing technique during IV line insertion,

Administration of medications,

Check any swelling and redness and change IV sites as indicated.

Give Morning, Evening Care to Patient,

Teach for good hygienic practice i.e. Skin Hand foots

If any wound promote wound healing

 Health education for DM

Give Health education about control of Blood sugar levels

Provide psychological-emotional support to the patient,

Health education about control of blood sugar in Home

Give education How to treat hypoglycemic reactions

by giving sugar juice, Chocolate candy, honey fruit juice,

Teach about active and passive exercises to control blood sugar

Give information about Self Check signs and symptoms of complication DM effects.

Watch Video fo Diabetic Food



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