Children Growth and Development Influence Factors Growth & development are the terms used Interchangeably.
Growth refers to an increase in the physical size of the whole or any of its parts and can be measured in inches or centimeters and in pounds or kilograms.
The process of growth and development starts from intrauterine i.e, from the beginning of
fertilization in the mother’s womb the Growth and Child development process extends throughout the life cycle Children’s Growth and development Influence factors causes of quantitative change in child’s body.
Development refers to a progressive increase in skill and capacity to function. It causes a qualitative change in the child’s functioning.
Development is orderly and not haphazard, there is a relation between each stage & next. The term maturation is often used as a synonym for development.
Children Growth and Development Influence Factors
Genetic and Heredity factors of Children Growth and Development
Heredity and Genetic factors decide the size & shape of the body, therefore family members bear a resemblance. The characteristics are transmitted through genes that are reasonable for family illnesses for example diabetes. Before the largeness or smallness of a child is evaluated the size of the parents should first be observed.
2.Race and Nationality:
Similar physical characteristics are seen in people belonging to the same race. As to height, tall & short examples are exist among all races & subraces.
The Heredity influence environment is so interrelated that they are practically inseparable. Better sunshine, clean surrounding, fresh air, and socio-economic status can affect parenting children’s development. Emotionally sound warm & caring environment which promotes parent
4.child positive interactions enhance development.
Prenatal environment The influence of the intrauterine environment on the child’s environment is great particularly since the uterus shields the fetus from the full impact of external adverse conditions.
The harmful intrauterine fetal factors are – The intrauterine fetus may suffer from nutritional deficiency when the Antenatal mother’s diet is low in taking or insufficient in quantity and quality regardless of the mother’s socioeconomic standing. The antenatal mother may suffer from metabolic and endocrine disturbance i.e diabetes mellitus which affects the fetus. If the mother is undergoing radiation for cancer or other conditions, the infant may treatment, etc.,
5. Postnatal environment:
An environment that provides satisfying experiences promotes growth. Since growth & Development are interrelated growth in one area influences and intern is influenced by growth in all other areas.
The most important external & internal environmental factors for Children are following:
(a) Cultural influences: Groups of human beings create their own cultures, whereas each Individual is influenced or shaped by the culture of which he or she is a part.
(b) Socioeconomic levels of the family: The surrounding environment of lower socio-economic groups may choose to less favorable than middle and upper groups.
(c) Nutrition: Quality & quantity of food consumed by the child have an effect on his or her bodybuilding & resistance.
(d) Climate and season: climate and variations influence Baby’s health. Eg: in summer it is essential when parents are unable to provide sufficient and adequate refrigeration of food and extermination of flies and other insects. Infants in such families are prone to suffer from diarrhea Seasons of year influence baby growth rates in height and weight especially older childrens. Weight gains are lowest rate in spring and early summer and greatest in late summer & autumn.
(e) Deviations from positive Health: These may be caused by hereditary or congenital conditions, illness, or injury and may result in altered levels of growth and development.
(f) Exercise: Exercise by increasing blood circulation it can promote physiologic activity and stimulate muscular development. Fresh air and sunshine favor health and growth.
(g) Ordinal position in the family: Children learn from older siblings which may be lacked by the first child. The order of the child may ha a bearing on the parent-child relationship and child-rearing practices that are followed. The firstborn baby in a family is an only child and receives all parental attention until the second baby is born. The child born second or later in order have more confidence in parenting skills. The youngest is petted and may have slow in certain areas of development.
1. Internal Environment:
is co-related to some degree with physical development that is – the child with high intelligence is likely to the taller and better developed than is the less gifted children. Intelligence Influences mental and social development.
Children born with a low level of intelligence can never excel no matter how enriched are their environment.
b) Hormonal Influences:
All the Endocrine hormones in the body affect growth in some manner.
These hormones – Somatotropic hormone, thyroid hormone and that stimulate the gonadotropins are very important others also influence Baby growth to an extent.
C. The somatotropic hormone or growth hormone: has a major effect is on linear growth in height STH is essential in the proliferation of Bone cartilage cells at epiphysis plates.
D. Thyroid hormones: Thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), Thyrotropic hormone (TH). Thyroid hormones stimulate the general metabolism. An excess of thyroid hormones produces advanced linear growth whereas deficiency produces cretinism with stunted physical growth and mental retardation
that stimulates the gonads. The adrenocorticotropic hormone produced by the adenohypophysis.
An excess of any of these hormones results in precocious puberty whereas a deficiency results in delayed development
F. Emotions: The relationships with significant other persons, mother and father, siblings, peers, and teachers among others play a major and vital role in the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the baby. Nurses’ Responsibility in meeting the needs of the child: The main function of nurses is the welfare of the child and his family. Nursing of the child is aimed at the highest possible state of health to each child.
It includes preventing diseases or injuries, helping children to meet their health needs, to achieve an
Maintain adequate health and development and rehabilitating them.
2.The role of the pediatric nurse depends on her education, experience job structure, and professional demands.
(a) Preventive care of Children:
Prevention of illness and injury is important in the role of pediatric nurse. Preventive care should be considered in relation to all aspects of children’s health.
The nurse must plan care for every aspect of growth and development of the child. Problems related to development nutrition,
Immunization, dental care safety, socialization, and education should be assessed, guidance should be provided.
(b) Health Education:
The nurses should give appropriate health teaching with general feedback from parents. She should give
health instructions planned talks or incidental teaching as required Nurse can act as a model for parents & children.
(c) Restoration of Health:
The nurse’s role as restoration of health is accomplished through caregiving activities. The nurses are involved in meeting their needs such as feeding, bathing security,
comfort, and other care. She should continuously assess and evaluate to modify the care plan and meet the developmental needs of the child.
Nurse plays an important role in the health team by coordinating activities related to patient care. The communication or coordination may be direct or indirect depending on health care.
The pediatric nurse can provide comprehensive care to infants &
children including guidance to parents about their role in child care.